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Glossaries A

Acceptance testing Determining whether a Web site meets the original business objectives and vision.

Access control Mechanism that determines who can legitimately use a network resource.

Access log A record kept by a Web server that shows when a user accesses the server; kept in a common log file format, each line of this text file details an individual access.

Ad management Methodology and software that enable organizations to perform a variety of activities involved in Web advertising (e.g., tracking viewers, rotating ads).

Ad views The number of times users call up a page that has a banner on it during a specific period; known as impressions or page views.

Address Verification System (AVS) Detects fraud by comparing the address entered on a Web page with the address information on file with the cardholder’s issuing bank.

Admediaries Third-party vendors that conduct promotions, especially large-scale ones.

Advanced planning and scheduling (APS) systems Programs that use algorithms to identify optimal solutions to complex planning problems that are bound by constraints.

Advergaming The practice of using computer games to advertise a product, an organization, or a viewpoint.

Advertising networks Specialized firms that offer customized Web advertising, such as brokering ads and targeting ads to select groups of consumers.

Advertorial An advertisement “disguised” to look like editorial content or general information.

Affiliate marketing An arrangement whereby a marketing partner (a business, an organization, or even an individual) refers consumers to the selling company’s Web site.

Ajax A Web development technique for creating interactive Web applications.

Analytic CRM Applying business analytics techniques and business intelligence such as data mining and online analytic processing to CRM applications.

Angel investor A wealthy individual who contributes personal funds and possibly expertise at the earliest stage of business development.

Application service provider (ASP) An agent or vendor who assembles the functions needed by enterprises and packages them with outsourced development, operation, maintenance, and other services.

Application-level proxy A firewall that permits requests for Web pages to move from the public Internet to the private network.

Attractors Web site features that attract and interact with visitors in the target stakeholder group.

Auction A competitive process in which a seller solicits consecutive bids from buyers (forward auctions) or a buyer solicits bids from sellers (backward auctions). Prices are determined dynamically by the bids.

Auction vortal Another name for vertical auction portal.

Authentication Process to verify (assure) the real identity of an individual, computer, computer program, or EC Web site.

Authorization Process of determining what the authenticated entity is allowed to access and what operations it is allowed to perform.

Automated Clearing House (ACH) Network A nationwide batch-oriented electronic funds transfer system that provides for the interbank clearing of electronic payments for participating financial institutions.

Auto responders Automated e-mail reply systems (text files returned via e-mail) that provide answers to commonly asked questions.

Availability Assurance that access to data, the Web site, or other EC data service is timely, available, reliable, and restricted to authorized users.

Avatars Animated computer characters that exhibit humanlike movements and behaviors.

Glossaries B

B2B portals Information portals for businesses.

Back end The activities that support online order fulfillment, inventory management, purchasing from suppliers, payment processing, packaging, and delivery.

Back-office operations The activities that support fulfillment of orders, such as packing, delivery, accounting, and logistics.

Balanced scorecard A management tool that assesses organizational progress toward strategic goals by measuring performance in a number of different areas.

Banking Trojan A Trojan that comes to life when computer owners visit one of a number of online banking or e-commerce sites.

Banner On a Web page, a graphic advertising display linked to the advertiser’s Web page.

Banner exchanges Markets in which companies can trade or exchange placement of banner ads on each other’s Web sites.

Banner swapping An agreement between two companies to each display the other’s banner ad on its Web site.

Bartering The exchange of goods or services.

Bartering exchange A marketplace in which an intermediary arranges barter transactions.

Bastion gateway A special hardware server that utilizes application-level proxy software to limit the types of requests that can be passed to an organization’s internal networks from the public Internet.

Behavioral targeting The use of information collected on an individual’s Internet-browsing behavior to select which advertisements to display to that individual.

Biometric systems Authentication systems that identify a person by measurement of a biological characteristic, such as fingerprints, iris (eye) patterns, facial features, or voice.

Biometrics An individual’s unique physical or behavioral characteristics that can be used to identify an individual precisely (e.g., fingerprints).

Blog A personal Web site that is open to the public to read and to interact with; often dedicated to specific topics or issues.

Bluetooth A set of telecommunications standards that enables wireless devices to communicate with each other over short distances.

Botnet A huge number (e.g., hundreds of thousands) of hijacked Internet computers that have been set up to forward traffic, including spam and viruses, to other computers on the Internet.

Brick-and-mortar (old economy) organizations Old-economy organizations (corporations) that perform their primary business off-line, selling physical products by means of physical agents.

Brick-and-mortar retailers Retailers who do business in the non-Internet, physical world in traditional brick-andmortar stores.

Build-to-order (pull system) A manufacturing process that starts with an order (usually customized). Once the order is paid for, the vendor starts to fulfill it.

Bullwhip effect Erratic shifts in orders up and down supply chains.

Business case A document that justifies the investment of internal, organizational resources in a specific application or project.

Business intelligence Activities that not only collect and process data, but also make possible analysis that results in useful—intelligent—solutions to business problems.

Business model A method of doing business by which a company can generate revenue to sustain itself.

Business network A group of people that have some kind of commercial relationship; for example, the relationships between sellers and buyers, buyers among themselves, buyers and suppliers, and colleagues and other colleagues.

Business plan A written document that identifies a company’s goals and outlines how the company intends to achieve the goals and at what cost.

Business process management (BPM) Method for business restructuring that combines workflow systems and redesign methods; covers three process categories— people-to-people, systems-to-systems, and systems-topeople interactions.

Business-to-business (B2B) E-commerce model in which all of the participants are businesses or other organizations.

Business-to-business e-commerce (B2B EC) Transactions between businesses conducted electronically over the Internet, extranets, intranets, or private networks; also known as eB2B (electronic B2B) or just B2B.

Business-to-business-to-consumer (B2B2C) E-commerce model in which a business provides some product or service to a client business that maintains its own customers.

Business-to-consumer (B2C) E-commerce model in which businesses sell to individual shoppers.

Business-to-employees (B2E) E-commerce model in which an organization delivers services, information, or products to its individual employees.

Button A button is a small banner that is linked to a Web site. It can contain downloadable software.

Buy-side e-marketplace A corporate-based acquisition site that uses reverse auctions, negotiations, group purchasing, or any other e-procurement method.

Glossaries C

Captcha tool Short for “completely automated public Turing test to tell computers and humans apart,” this tool uses a verification test on comment pages to stop scripts from posting automatically.

Card verification number (CVN) Detects fraud by comparing the verification number printed on the signature strip on the back of the card with the information on file with the cardholder’s issuing bank.

Card-not-present (CNP) transaction A credit card transaction in which the merchant does not verify the customer’s signature.

Certificate authorities (CAs) Third parties that issue digital certificates.

Channel conflict Situation in which an online marketing channel upsets the traditional channels due to real or perceived damage from competition.

Chatter bots Animation characters that can talk (chat).

Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA) U.S. law that mandates the use of filtering technologies in schools and libraries that receive certain types of federal funding.

Cipher text A plaintext message after it has been encrypted into a machine-readable form.

Civil litigation An adversarial proceeding in which a party (the plaintiff ) sues another party (the defendant) to get compensation for a wrong committed by the defendant.

Click (click-through or ad click) A count made each time a visitor clicks on an advertising banner to access the advertiser’s Web site.

Click-and-mortar (click-and-brick) organizations Organizations that conduct some
e-commerce activities, usually as an additional marketing channel.

Click-and-mortar retailers Brick-and-mortar retailers that offer a transactional Web site from which to conduct business.

Click-through rate The percentage of visitors who are exposed to a banner ad and click on it.

Click-through ratio The ratio between the number of clicks on a banner ad and the number of times it is seen by viewers; measures the success of a banner in attracting visitors to click on the ad.

Click stream behavior Customer movements on the Internet.

click stream data Data that occur inside the Web environment; they provide a trail of the user’s activities (the user’s clickstream behavior) in the Web site.

Co-location A Web server owned and maintained by the business given to a Web hosting service that manages the server’s connection to the Internet.

Collaboration hub The central point of control for an e-market. A single collaborative-hub (c-hub), representing one e-market owner, can host multiple collaboration spaces (c-spaces) in which trading partners use collaboration enablers (c-enablers) to exchange data with the

Collaborative commerce (c-commerce) The use of digital technologies that enable companies to collaboratively plan, design, develop, manage, and research products, services, and innovative EC applications.

Collaborative filtering A market research and personalization method that uses customer data to predict, based on formulas derived from behavioral sciences, what other products or services a customer may enjoy; predictions can be extended to other customers with similar profiles.

Collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment (CPFR) Project in which suppliers and retailers collaborate in their planning and demand forecasting to optimize flow of materials along the supply chain.

Collaborative portals Portals that enable collaboration.

Collaborative Web site A site that allows business partners to collaborate.

Comment spam Spam sent to all types of messaging media, including blogs, IM, and cellular telephones to promote products or services.

Commodity content Information that is widely available and generally free to access on the Web.

Company-centric EC E-commerce that focuses on a single company’s buying needs (many-to-one, or buy-side) or selling needs (one-to-many, or sell-side).

Competitive forces model Model devised by Porter that says that five major forces of competition determine industry structure and how economic value is divided among the industry players in an industry; analysis of these forces helps companies develop their competitive strategy.

Competitor analysis grid A strategic planning tool that highlights points of differentiation between competitors and the target firm.

Computing Technology Industry Association (Comp TIA) Nonprofit trade group providing information security research and best practices.

Confidentiality Assurance of data privacy and accuracy. Keeping private or sensitive information from being disclosed to unauthorized individuals, entities, or processes.

Consortium trading exchange (CTE) An exchange formed and operated by a group of major companies in an industry to provide industry-wide transaction services.

Consumer-to-business (C2B) E-commerce model in which individuals use the Internet to sell products or services to organizations or individuals who seek sellers to bid on products or services they need.

Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) E-commerce model in which consumers sell directly to other consumers (also known as customer-to-customer commerce).

Contact card A smart card containing a small gold plate on the face that when inserted in a smart card reader makes contact and passes data to and from the embedded microchip.

Contactless (proximity) card A smart card with an embedded antenna, by means of which data and applications are passed to and from a card reader unit or other device without contact between the card and the card reader.

Content The text, images, sound, and video that make up a Web page.

Content management The process of adding, revising, and removing content from a Web site to keep content fresh, accurate, compelling, and credible.

Conversion rate The percentage of clickers who actually make a purchase.

Cookie A data file that is placed on a user’s hard drive by a remote Web server, frequently without disclosure or the user’s consent, that collects information about the user’s activities at a site.

Copyright An exclusive right of the author or creator of a book, movie, musical composition or other artistic property to print, copy, sell, license, distribute, transform to another medium, translate, record, perform, or otherwise use.

Corporate (enterprise) portal A gateway for entering a corporate Web site, enabling communication, collaboration, and access to company information.

Cost-benefit analysis A comparison of the costs of a project against the benefits.

CPM (cost per thousand impressions) The fee an advertiser pays for each 1,000 times a page with a banner ad is shown.

Cross-selling Offering similar or complementary products and services to increase sales.

Customer interaction center (CIC) A comprehensive service entity in which EC vendors address customer-service issues communicated through various contact channels.

Customer relationship management (CRM) A customer service approach that focuses on building long-term and sustainable customer relationships that add value both for the customer and the selling company.

Customer-to-customer (C2C) See consumer-to-consumer (C2C).

Customization Creation of a product or service according to the buyer’s specifications.

Cyber mediation (electronic intermediation) The use of software (intelligent) agents to facilitate intermediation.

Cisco Unified Communications Manager (CUCM)
Formerly Cisco Unified CallManager and Cisco CallManager (CCM), is a software-based call-processing system developed by Cisco Systems.CUCM tracks all active VoIP network components; these include phones, gateways, conference bridges, transcoding resources, and voicemail boxes among others. CallManager often utilizes the Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP) as a communications protocol for signaling the hardware endpoints of the system, such as IP Phones. H.323, Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) or Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is used to pass call signaling to gateways.

Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express (CUCME)
Formerly Cisco Unified CallManager Express and Cisco CallManager Express, is a Cisco IOS based IP-PBX for small medium business, enterprise branch office and commercial customers. It provides a rich set of call control and voice application features for the above mentioned customer profiles. It supports Cisco IP phones using Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP) and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). Call Manager Express also provides a rich set of traditional PSTN connectivity options using both digital and analog lines.

Glossaries D

Dark nets Private online community that is only open to those who belong to it.

Data conferencing Virtual meeting in which geographically dispersed groups work on documents together and exchange computer files during videoconferences.

Data mart A small data warehouse designed for a strategic business unit (SBU) or department.

Data mining The process of searching a large database to discover previously unknown patterns; automates the process of finding predictive information.

Data warehouse (DW) A single, server-based data repository that allows centralized analysis, security, and control over data.

Denial of service (DoS) attack An attack on a Web site in which an attacker uses specialized software to send a flood of data packets to the target computer with the aim of overloading its resources.

Desktop purchasing Direct purchasing from internal marketplaces without the approval of supervisors and without the intervention of a procurement department.

Desktop search Search tools that search the contents of a user’s or organization’s computer files rather than searching the Internet. The emphasis is on finding all the information that is available on the user’s PC, including Web browser histories, e-mail archives, and word-processor documents, as well as all internal files and databases.

Differentiation Providing a product or service that is unique.

Digital economy An economy that is based on digital technologies, including digital communication networks, computers, software, and other related information technologies; also called the Internet economy, the new economy, or the Web economy.

Digital enterprise A new business model that uses IT in a fundamental way to accomplish one or more of three basic objectives: reach and engage customers more effectively, boost employee productivity, and improve operating efficiency. It uses converged communication and computing technology in a way that improves business processes.

Digital envelope The combination of the encrypted original message and the digital signature, using the recipient’s public key.

Digital products Goods that can be transformed to digital format and delivered over the Internet.

Digital rights management (DRM) An umbrella term for any of several arrangements that allow a vendor of content in electronic form to control the material and restrict its usage.

Digital signature or digital certificate Validates the sender and time stamp of a transaction so it cannot be later claimed that the transaction was unauthorized or invalid.

Direct marketing Broadly, marketing that takes place without intermediaries between manufacturers and buyers; in the context of this book, marketing done online between any seller and buyer.

Direct materials Materials used in the production of a product (e.g., steel in a car or paper in a book).

Disintermediation The removal of organizations or business process layers responsible for certain intermediary steps in a given supply chain.

Disruptors Companies that introduce significant changes in their industries.

Distance learning Formal education that takes place off campus, usually, but not always, through online resources.

Domain name A name-based address that identifies an Internet-connected server. Usually, it refers to the portion of the address to the left of .com and .org, etc.

Domain name registrar A business that assists prospective Web site owners with finding and registering the domain name of their choice.

Double auction Auctions in which multiple buyers and their bidding prices are matched with multiple sellers and their asking prices, considering the quantities on both sides.

Due care Care that a company is reasonably expected to take based on the risks affecting its EC business and online transactions.

Dynamic pricing A rapid movement of prices over time and possibly across customers, as a result of supply and demand matching.

Dynamic Web content Content that must be kept up-to-date.

Glossaries E

E-bartering (electronic bartering) Bartering conducted online, usually in a bartering exchange.

E-book A book in digital form that can be read on a computer screen or on a special device.

E-business A broader definition of EC that includes not just the buying and selling of goods and services, but also servicing customers, collaborating with business partners, and conducting electronic transactions within an organization.

E-check A legally valid electronic version or representation of a paper check.

E-coops Another name for online group purchasing organizations.

E-commerce (EC) risk The likelihood that a negative outcome will occur in the course of developing and operating an electronic commerce strategy.

E-commerce strategy (e-strategy) The formulation and execution of a vision of how a new or existing company intends to do business electronically.

E-CRM Customer relationship management conducted electronically.

E-distributor An e-commerce intermediary that connects manufacturers with business buyers (customers) by aggregating the catalogs of many manufacturers in one place—the intermediary’s Web site.

E-government E-commerce model in which a government entity buys or provides goods, services, or information to businesses or individual citizens.

E-grocer A grocer that takes orders online and provides deliveries on a daily or other regular schedule or within a very short period of time.

E-learning The online delivery of information for purposes of education, training, or knowledge management.

E-logistics The logistics of EC systems, typically involving small parcels sent to many customers’ homes (in B2C).

E-loyalty Customer loyalty to an e-tailer or loyalty programs delivered online or supported electronically.

E-mall (online mall) An online shopping center where many online stores are located.

E-marketplace An online market, usually B2B, in which buyers and sellers exchange goods or services; the three types of e-marketplaces are private, public, and consortia.

E-micropayments Small online payments, typically under $5.

E-newsletter A collection of short, informative articles sent at regular intervals by e-mail to individuals who have an interest in the newsletter’s topic.

E-procurement The use of Web-based technology to support the key procurement processes, including requisitioning, sourcing, contracting, ordering, and payment.

E-sourcing The process and tools that electronically enable any activity in the sourcing process, such as quotation/tender submittance and response, e-auctions, online negotiations, and spending analyses.

E-supply chain A supply chain that is managed electronically, usually with Web technologies.

E-supply chain management (e-SCM) The collaborative use of technology to improve the operations of supply chain activities as well as the management of supply chains.

E-tailers Retailers who sell over the Internet.

E-tailing Online retailing, usually B2C.

E-zines Electronic magazine or newsletter delivered over the Internet via e-mail.

EC architecture A plan for organizing the underlying infrastructure and applications of a site.

EC security program Set of controls over security processes to protect organizational assets. All the policies, procedures, documents, standards, hardware, software, training, and personnel that work together to protect information, the ability to conduct business, and other assets.

EC security strategy A strategy that views EC security as the process of preventing and detecting unauthorized use of the organization’s brand, identity, Web site, e-mail, information, or other assets and attempts to defraud the organization, its customers, and employees.

EC suite A type of merchant server software that consists of an integrated collection of a large number of EC tools and components that work together for EC applications development.

Edutainment The combination of education and entertainment, often through games.

Electronic auction (e-auction) Auctions conducted online.

Electronic (online) banking or e-banking Various banking activities conducted from home or the road using an Internet connection; also known as cyberbanking, virtual banking, online banking, and home banking.

Electronic catalog The virtual-world equivalent of a traditional product catalog; contains product descriptions and photos, along with information about various promotions, discounts, payment methods, and methods of delivery.

Electronic commerce (EC) The process of buying, selling, transferring, or exchanging products, services, or information via computer networks.

Electronic market (e-marketplace) An online marketplace where buyers and sellers meet to exchange goods, services, money, or information.

Electronic retailing (e-tailing) Retailing conducted online, over the Internet.

Electronic shopping cart An order-processing technology that allows customers to accumulate items they wish to buy while they continue to shop.

Electronic voting Voting process that involves many steps ranging from registering, preparing, voting, and counting (voting and counting are all done electronically).

Emulation A software emulator allows computer programs to run on a platform (computer architecture and/or operating system) other than the one for which they were originally written.

Encryption The process of scrambling (encrypting) a message in such a way that it is difficult, expensive, or time-consuming for an unauthorized person to unscramble (decrypt) it.

Encryption algorithm The mathematical formula used to encrypt the plaintext into the cipher text, and vice versa.

Enhanced Messaging Service (EMS) An extension of SMS that can send simple animation, tiny pictures, sounds, and formatted text.

Enterprise application integration (EAI) Class of software that integrates large systems.

Enterprise invoice presentment and payment (EIPP) Presenting and paying B2B invoices online.

Ethics The branch of philosophy that deals with what is considered to be right and wrong.

Exchange A public electronic market with many buyers and sellers.

Exchange-to-exchange (E2E) E-commerce model in which electronic exchanges formally connect to one another for the purpose of exchanging information.

Exchanges (trading communities or trading exchanges) Many-to-many e-marketplaces, usually owned and run by a third party or a consortium, in which many buyers and many sellers meet electronically to trade with each other.

Expert location systems Interactive computerized systems that help employees find and connect with colleagues who have expertise required for specific problems—whether they are across the country or across the room—in order to solve specific, critical business problems in seconds.

Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (xHTML) A general scripting language; compatible with HTML; a standard set by the W3Consortium.

Extranet A network that uses a virtual private network to link intranets in different locations over the Internet; an “extended intranet.”

Glossaries F

Fair use The legal use of copyrighted material for noncommercial purposes without paying royalties or getting permission.

FAQ page A Web page that lists questions that are frequently asked by customers and the answers to those questions.

Firewall A single point between two or more networks where all traffic must pass (choke point); the device authenticates, controls, and logs all traffic.

Forward auction An auction in which a seller entertains bids from buyers. Bidders increase price sequentially.

Fraud Any business activity that uses deceitful practices or devices to deprive another of property or other rights.

Front end The portion of an e-seller’s business processes through which customers interact, including the seller’s portal, electronic catalogs, a shopping cart, a search engine, and a payment gateway.

Front-office operations The business processes, such as sales and advertising, that are visible to customers.

Glossaries G

Gateway: Used in different senses (e.g., Mail Gateway, IP Gateway), but most generally, a computer that forwards and routes data between two or more networks of any size. See CGI.

Gopher: A search tool that presents information in a hierarchical menu system somewhat like a table of contents.

GOSIP (Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile):The U.S. government's OSI protocols that address communication and inter-operation of computer systems across government agencies; they mandate that network procurements comply with the Open System Interconnection model.

Graphics Standard: A technical standard describing the digital exchange format of graphics data. (CCITT Group 4 and CGM are examples).

GTIS (Government Technical Information Systems): The collection of automated data processing systems and applications used by government agencies and offices to enter, update, manage, retrieve, and distribute technical data from a specific Integrated Weapon System Data Base.

Global positioning system (GPS) A worldwide satellite based tracking system that enables users to determine their position anywhere on the earth.

Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) An open, nonproprietary standard for mobile voice and data communications.

Government-to-business (G2B) E-government category that includes interactions between governments and businesses (government selling to businesses and providing them with services and businesses selling products and services to government).

Government-to-citizens (G2C) E-government category that includes all the interactions between a government and its citizens.

Government-to-employees (G2E) E-government category that includes activities and services between government units and their employees.

Government-to-government (G2G) E-government category that includes activities within government units and those between governments.

Group decision support system (GDSS) An interactive computer-based system that facilitates the solution of semi structured and unstructured problems by a group of decision makers.

Group purchasing The aggregation of orders from several buyers into volume purchases so that better prices can be negotiated.

Groupware Software products that use networks to support collaboration among groups of people who share a common task or goal.

Glossaries H

Hash A mathematical computation that is applied to a message, using a private key, to encrypt the message.

Hit A request for data from a Web page or file.

Honey net A network of honeypots.

Honey pot Production system (e.g., firewalls, routers, Web servers, database servers) that looks like it does real work, but which acts as a decoy and is watched to study how network intrusions occur.

Horizontal marketplaces Markets that concentrate on a service, material, or a product that is used in all types of industries (e.g., office supplies, PCs).

Human firewalls Methods that filter or limit people’s access to critical business documents.

HTML ( Hypertext Markup Language ):HTML is essentially an SGML DTD for hyperlinked text with in-line graphics which serves as the language of the Internet's World Wide Web. Documents that are formatted with proprietary software are typically too big for efficient transmission. A 4 Kb page in plain text can double in size with the addtion of proprietary formatting codes. A mark up language does not have this overhead. Instead of defining precisely how the document should appear, it identifies the important parts of a document, including text that should be emphasized. HTML codes are so compact that they have little or no effect on the file size.
HTML provides a way to dress up documents and make them look better than email. In addition, HTML provides tags for inserting in-line images and cross references or links. "Tags" are embedded in the text. A tag consists of a less-than bracket, "<", a "directive", zero or more parameters and a ">". Matched pairs of directives, like "<title>" and "</title>" are used to delimit text which is to appear in a special place or style. Links to particular places (anchor points) in other documents are in the form where "a", "/a" delimit an "anchor" called #H at the listed URL, (the anchor can be given any name). "href" introduces a hypertext reference, which in this case is a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) (the string enclosed in double quotes in the example above). The text "ECRC Glossary" will be the label appearing on the highlighted link in the browser.
A certain place within an HTML document can be specified by following the document name with a hash (#) and the name of an anchor at that position. In the example the target was #H. This target must be inserted in the document using the tag <a name="#H></a>. Without the anchor within the document, the link would be to the top of the first page of the document specified by the URL.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol): The protocol developed at CERN that enables a browser ( or client) to send out a request to a web server via the Internet.

Hypertext: Text that is not limited to a single linear or sequential path through it. Hypertext provides the option of non-sequential, non-hierarchical navigation through a body of information. Ted Nelson envisioned hypertext in 1965. His two books Computer Lib and Dream Machines are available in one volume from Microsoft press. He defines hypertext as non-sequential writing. Just as there is good and bad sequential writing, there is good and bad hypertext. The point is to organize data in a way that readers can easily pick the chunks they find relevant without following a sequence dictated by the author.

Glossaries I

ICR (Intelligent Character Recognition): A technology that employs either software only or software and hardware to automatically recognize and translate raster images into structured data. 

IDEF0: A functional modeling method for complex manufacturing environment which when graphically represented shows the structural relationships between the manufacturing processes.

IDEF1: a graphical method which extends the process model by modeling the information flows and the entity relationships. IDEF1X provides extensions to IDEF1 with different graphical representation.

Integrated Services Digital Network
is a telephone system network. Prior to the ISDN, the phone system was viewed as a way to transport voice, with some special services available for data. The key feature of the ISDN is that it integrates speech and data on the same lines, adding features that were not available in the classic telephone system. There are several kinds of access interfaces to the ISDN defined: Basic Rate Interface (BRI), Primary Rate Interface (PRI) and Broadband-ISDN (B-ISDN).ISDN is a circuit-switched telephone network system, that also provides access to packet switched networks, designed to allow digital transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires, resulting in better voice quality than an analog phone. It offers circuit-switched connections (for either voice or data), and packet-switched connections (for data), in increments of 64 kbit/s. Another major market application is Internet access, where ISDN typically provides a maximum of 128 kbit/s in both upstream and downstream directions (which can be considered to be broadband speed, since it exceeds the narrowband speeds of standard analog 56k telephone lines). ISDN B-channels can be bonded to achieve a greater data rate, typically 3 or 4 BRIs (6 to 8 64 kbit/s channels) are bonded.

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers): Organization of engineers, scientists and students involved in electrical, electronics, and related fields; also functions as a publishing house and standards-making body.

IETM (Interactive Electronic Technical Manual): An interactive, intelligent access environment for large volumes of graphical and text-based technical information. It provides a complete electronic technical manual that is linked to text, drawings, photographs, [video] and fault isolation procedures.

IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Standard): A neutral file format for the representation and transfer of product definition data among CAD/CAM systems and application programs.
A picture, graph, diagram or other form of graphical representation contained within a technical publication.

ILS (Integrated Logistics Support): Encompasses the unified management of the technical logistics elements that plan and develop the support requirements for a system. This can include hardware, software, and the provisioning of training and maintenance resources.

Information Engineering: A methodology for developing an integrated information system based on the sharing of common data, with emphasis on decision-support needs as well as transaction processing requirements. It assumes logical data representations are relatively stable, as opposed to the frequently changing processes that use the data. Therefore, the logical data model, which reflects an organization's rules and policies, should be the basis for systems development. 

Information Infrastructure: A structured collection of information system components and organization processes that enable the flow of necessary information to effect enterprise integration.

Information Superhighway: The Information Superhighway is a network that will potentially connect every government agency, business, and citizen providing a means of rapid access to information (in digital form) and electronic communication to every business and citizen in the country. This vision is an unprecedented nationwide (and ultimately worldwide) electronic communications network that will provide just about any sort of electronic communication imaginable. Your computer, interactive TV, telephone, or other technology will enable access. The purpose of the information superhighway is to provide an infrastructure for, among other things, electronic commerce, in a variety of forms including electronic banking, electronic data interchange, inventory managing, taxpaying, video conferencing, medical diagnosing, and virtually any other business activity. The closest approximation to the Information Superhighway at this time is the Internet.

Interactive voice response, or IVR, is a technology that allows a computer to detect voice and keypad inputs. IVR technology is used extensively in telecommunications, but is also being introduced into automobile systems for hands free operation. Current deployment in automobiles revolve around Satellite Navigation, audio and mobile phone systems. IVR system can respond with pre-recorded or dynamically generated audio to further direct users on how to proceed. IVR systems can be used to control almost any function where the interface can be broken down into a series of simple menu choices. In telecommunications IVR systems generally scale well to handle large call volumes.
It has become more common in industries that have recently entered the telecom industry to refer to an Automated Attendant as an IVR. This means that when discussing an IVR application, it is important to ensure that the person you are talking to understands the term to mean the same thing as you do. Generally-speaking, those with a traditional telecom background are more likely to refer to an Automated Attendant and IVR as separate things, whereas those from an Emerging Telephony or VoIP background are more likely to use the term IVR to define any kind of telephony menu, even the most basic Automated Attendant.

Integration: Can be described as consisting of three main components: physical integration, the connection of the hardware; data integration, the ready exchange of data between applications without loss of functionality; and lastly business integration, the integration of the functions needed to support decisions, monitor and control business.

Intelligent Gateway: Intelligent gateway is a technology which makes the complexities of on-line database connection and authorized interrogation transparent to users. Intelligent gateways provide transparent logos, transfer user prompted queries into that can be read by non-standard database retrieval programs. 

Inter-operability Testing: Inter-operability testing addresses the problem of data interchange between two vendor products within a data system, or between two data systems.

Interactive Access: The ability to access authorized portions of the source data maintained in contractor or Government systems via on-line telecommunications data transfers in real or near-real time using various types of queries.

Internet Protocol (IP): A standard that describes how packets of data are transported across the Internet and recognized as an incoming message.

Internet Relay Chat (IRC): A software tool that makes it possible to hold real-time keyboard conversations on-line.

Internet: The series of interconnected networks that includes local area, regional, and national backbone networks. Networks in the Internet use the same telecommunications protocol (TCP/IP) and provide electronic mail, remote login, and file transfer services. The global Internet, the world's largest internet, includes nearly every university, government, and research facility in the world. Since 1994, the number of commercial sites has increased exponentially to the point where, in 1996, 50% of the nodes on the Internet are commercial (.com) sites. The Internet is the closest thing that we have the Information Superhighway. It started with four interconnected computers in 1969 known as ARPAnet.

InterNIC: The official source of information about the Internet. Its goal is to: 1) provide Internet information services, 2) supervise the registration of Internet addresses, and 3) develop and provide databases that serve as white and yellow pages to the Internet.

Intranet: An intranet is a LAN or WAN operating under the TCP/IP and HTTP protocols but, usually for security reasons, is not connected to the global Internet. The information on the intranet is available only to those with network access.

IP Address: The numeric address of a computer connected to the Internet; also called Internet address. See domain name and TCP/IP.

IP (Internet protocol): The Internet standard protocol that provides a common layer over dissimilar networks, used to move packets among host computers and through gateways if necessary.

IPDB (Integrated Product Data Base): A common product data base enables changes and modifications available to users simultaneously.

Glossaries J

JCALS (Joint Computer-Aided Acquisition and Logistic Support):
The JCALS program is the Department of Defense's lead system for implementation of CALS. The functionality of JCALS will provide automation of technical manuals and other maintenance documents. Fairfax CALS Shared Resource Center, 1994.

JCMO (Joint CALS Management Office):
The JCMO was established as a joint (multi) military organization comprised of Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps and Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) in order to implement common (joint) CALS solutions. The JCMO developed the DoD CALS Architecture released in June 1991.

JEDMICS (Joint Engineering Data Management Information and Computer System):
The standard DoD program for management of engineering drawings and related technical data. It automates the DoD's engineering data repositories using an integrated suite of off-the-shelf hardware and software. This system enables improved acquisition, storage, update, and retrieval of technical information. Plans call for installation of JEDMICS at 25 sites by Fiscal Year 1995.

JIT (Just-In-Time) Inventory:
A method of controlling and reducing direct and work-in-process inventory by having suppliers deliver material "just in time" to manufacturing. [ed. May also be applied to other areas such as "just in time training" offered by IETMs]

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group):
A widely accepted, international standard for compression of color images. * Included with the permission of: Gartner Group, Inc.

Glossaries K

Kilobit and Kilobyte: A kilobit is 1000 bits. A byte usually equals 8 bits. Thus, a Kilobyte=8000bits. The former is generally used to indicate the speed of transmission (kbps or kb/s). The second along with Mb is typically used to as a measure of storage capacity.

key (key value) The secret code used to encrypt and decrypt a message.

key performance indicators (KPI) The quantitative expression of critically important metrics.

keyspace The large number of possible key values (keys) created by the algorithm to use when transforming the message.

keyword banners Banner ads that appear when a predetermined word is queried from a search engine.

knowledge discovery in databases (KDD)/knowledge discovery (KD) The process of extracting useful knowledge from volumes of data.

knowledge management (KM) The process of capturing or creating knowledge, storing it, updating it constantly, interpreting it, and using it whenever necessary.

knowledge portal A single-point-of-access software system intended to provide timely access to information and to support communities of knowledge workers.

Glossaries L

The acronym LAMP refers to a solution stack of software, usually free and open source software, used to run dynamic Web sites or servers. The original expansion is as follows:

  • Linux, referring to the operating system;
  • Apache, the Web server;
  • MySQL, the database management system (or database server);
  • PHP or others, i.e., Perl, Python, the programming languages.[1]

The combination of these technologies is used primarily to define a web server infrastructure, define a programming paradigm of developing software, and establish a software distribution package.Though the originators of these open source programs did not design them all to work specifically with each other, the combination has become popular because of its low acquisition cost and because of the ubiquity of its components (which come bundled with most current Linux distributions). When used in combination they represent a solution stack of technologies that support application servers.

LAN ( Local Area Network ): A user-owned and operated data transmission facility connecting a number of communicating devices (e.g. computers, terminals, word processors, printers, and mass storage units) within a single building or campus of buildings.
Layer: In the Open System Interconnection reference model, refers to a collection of related network-processing functions that constitute one level of a hierarchy of functions.
LCC (Life-Cycle-Cost): Refers to the total cost of a product over the full life of the product. The cost includes design, development, production, and support. 
LDM (Legacy Data Management): The process of identifying and evaluating historical information and defining potential solutions and requirements for long-term usage of that data in a cost effective manner.
Lead Time: A span of time required to perform an activity. In a production and inventory control context, the activity is normally the procurement of materials or product from either an outside supplier or a company's own manufacturing facility. The individual components of any given lead time can include some or all of the following: order preparation time, queue time, move or transportation time, receiving and inspection time.
Legacy Data: Existing data that has been acquired by an organization.
LOA (Letter of Agreement): A document executed between two or more parties outlining specific agreements relating to the accomplishment of an action.
Logistics: Logistics is the science of planning and implementing the acquisition and use of the resources necessary to sustain the operation of a system. 
LSA (Logistics Support Analysis): A modeling process used to recognize the maintenance, training and the number of people that are required to get the system running and to maintain the system.  
LSAR (Logistics Support Analysis Record): That portion of LSA documentation consisting of detailed data pertaining to the identification of logistic support resource requirements of a system or equipment.

Latency The time required to complete an operation, such as downloading a Web page.

Legal precedent A judicial decision that may be used as a standard in subsequent similar cases.

Letter of credit (LC) A written agreement by a bank to pay the seller, on account of the buyer, a sum of money upon presentation of certain documents.

Localization The process of converting media products developed in one environment (e.g., country) to a form culturally and linguistically acceptable in countries outside the original target market.

Location-based commerce (l-commerce) M-commerce transactions targeted to individuals in specific locations, at specific times.

Location-based m-commerce Delivery of m-commerce transactions to individuals in a specific location, at a specific time.

Logistics The operations involved in the efficient and effective flow and storage of goods, services, and related information from point of origin to point of consumption.

Glossaries M

Magnetic Tape: Magnetic tape is the preferred physical medium for delivery of technical data in digital form because it is a mature, stable technology that is able to handle the large volumes of data typically involved in a major weapon system acquisition.
Mailing List: A BBS (see the definition of BBS) like server that acts like a giant message router. All messages sent to the mailing list are automatically sent to all members of the mailing list.
Maintainability: The measure of the ability of an item to be retained in or restored to specified condition when maintenance is performed by personnel having specified skill levels, using prescribed procedures and resources, at each prescribed level of maintenance and repair. 
MANTECH (Manufacturing Technology): This DoD program may provide a source of viable technology transfer for program specific CALS initiatives. The MANTECH program was established to help develop and improve manufacturing processes, techniques and equipment to provide timely reliable and economical production in DoD. 
MAP (Manufacturing Automation Protocol): A largely moribund communication standard proposed by General Motors in 1986 that ideally would have enabled system devices within a manufacturing company to communicate among themselves.
Markup: Tags that are added to the data of a document in order to convey information about it.
MIL-HDBK (Military Handbook): A document published by the Military Defense Department as a guide for implementing various programs.
MIL-HDBK-59 (Military Handbook 59): The "DoD CALS Program Implementation Guide," is not a standard. It provides the acquisition manager and his staff, as well as defense contractors and government end users with a detailed explanation of the CALS program, its objectives and strategy, and how to develop and apply CALS requirements that meet the needs of a particular weapon system development program. The current version is `B`.
MIL-SPEC (Military Specification): A Specification used to specify requirements when designing or producing a product for the Department of Defense.
MODEM (Modulator Demodulator): A device that converts digital signals from a computer to analog signals for transmission over phone lines.
Mosaic: Windows-like product for exploring the Internet that is available free in Cyberspace, CompuServe, America On-line, and many bulletin boards. Mosaic was developed by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at University of Illinois and was funded with tax dollars.
Motif: Graphical user interface specified by the Open Software Foundation and built on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's X Windows.
MPEG (Motion Pictures Experts Group): An emerging standard for compression of full motion images driven by the same committee as the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) standard.
MRP (Material Requirements Planning): Original manufacturing business software that focused only on planning the manufacturing materials and inventories and did not integrate planning for other resources, such as people and machine capacity. 

Middleware is computer software that connects software components or applications. The software consists of a set of enabling services that allow multiple processes running on one or more machines to interact across a network. This technology evolved to provide for interoperability in support of the move to coherent distributed architectures, which are used most often to support and simplify complex, distributed applications. It includes web servers, application servers, and similar tools that support application development and delivery. Middleware is especially integral to modern information technology based on XML, SOAP, Web services, and service-oriented architecture.

It sits "in the middle" between application software working on different operating systems. It is similar to the middle layer of a three-tier single system architecture, except that it is stretched across multiple systems or applications. Examples include database systems, telecommunications software, transaction monitors, and messaging-and-queueing software.
The distinction between operating system and middleware functionality is, to some extent, arbitrary. While core kernel functionality can only be provided by the operating system itself, some functionality previously provided by separately sold middleware is now integrated in operating systems. A typical example is the TCP/IP stack for telecommunications, nowadays included in virtually every operating system.
In simulation technology, middleware is generally used in the context of the high level architecture (HLA) that applies to many distributed simulations. It is a layer of software that lies between the application code and the run-time infrastructure. Middleware generally consists of a library of functions, and enables a number of applications – simulations or federates in HLA terminology – to page these functions from the common library rather than re-create them for each application

Multimedia: Used essentially to define applications and technologies that manipulate text, data, images and voice full motion video objects. Typically associated with PCs, but increasingly associated with networked-based applications.

Macro virus (macro worm) A virus or worm that executes when the application object that contains the macro is opened or a particular procedure is executed.

Malware A generic term for malicious software.

Market segmentation The process of dividing a consumer market into logical groups for conducting marketing research and analyzing personal information.

Mashup Combination of two or more Web sites into a single Web site that provides the content of both sites (whole or partial) to deliver a novel product to consumers.

Maverick buying Unplanned purchases of items needed quickly, often at non-prenegotiated higher prices.

Merchant brokering Deciding from whom (from what merchant) to buy products.

Merchant server software Software for selling over the Internet that enables companies to establish selling sites relatively easily and inexpensively.

Message digest (MD) A summary of a message, converted into a string of digits, after the hash has been applied.

Metadata Data about data, including software programs about data, rules for organizing data, and data summaries.

Metrics A specific, measurable standard against which actual performance is compared (quantitative or qualitative).

Microbrowser Wireless Web browser designed to operate with small screens and limited bandwidth and memory requirements.

Middleware Separate products that serve as the glue between two applications; sometimes called plumbing because it connects two sides of an application and passes data between them.

Mirror site An exact duplicate of an original Web site that is physically located on a Web server on another continent or in another country.

Mobile commerce (m-commerce, m-business) Any business activity conducted over a wireless telecommunications network or from mobile devices.

Mobile CRM The delivery of CRM applications to any user, whenever and wherever needed, by use of the wireless infrastructure and mobile devices.

Mobile portal A customer interaction channel that aggregates content and services for mobile devices.

MRO (maintenance, repair, and operation) Indirect materials used in activities that support production.

Multichannel business model A business model where a company sells in multiple marketing channels simultaneously (e.g., both physical and online stores).

Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) The emerging generation of wireless messaging; MMS is able to deliver rich media.

Multitiered application architecture EC architecture consisting of four tiers: Web browsers, Web servers, application servers, and database servers.

Glossaries N

Native virtualization Leverages hardware assisted capabilities available in the latest processors to provide near-native performance.

Netizen A citizen surfing the Internet.

Norepudiation Assurance that an online customer or trading partner cannot falsely deny (repudiate) their purchase or transaction.

Nontechnical attack An attack that uses chicanery to trick people into revealing sensitive information or performing actions that compromise the security of a network.

National Information Infrastructure (NII): A concept conceived by the Clinton Administration and an alliance of computer, software, cable, and phone companies. The proposed concept would be the electronic network of tomorrow and would use phone line, cable systems, and high-speed data-networks to link everyone, including government agencies, universities, company presidents, and private citizens. The concept envisions vast amounts of services, entertainment, and information being made readily available through computers, televisions, telephones, and other means of electronic communication.

National Research and Education Network (NREN): The High-Performance Computing and Communications Act of 1991 (sponsored by Vice-President Gore) was a bill that created the NREN. NREN will use the Internet to provide information resource connection not only to universities, research centers and government agencies, but also to secondary and elementary schools. The bill provides $2.9 billion over a five year period towards the NREN. The High-Performance Computing and High Speed Networking Applications Act of 1993, sponsored by Rep. Richard Bouche, expands the Gore bill to also include access to health care facilities and and schools at all levels.

Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS): A Microsoft specification for a type of device driver that allows multiple transport protocols to run on one network card simultaneously.

Network News Transport Protocol (NNTP): An extension of the TCP/IP protocol that describes how newsgroup messages are transported between compatible servers.

Newsgroup: A BBS-like forum or conference area where you can post messages on a specified topic. Many newsgroups covering a wide range of topics exist on the Internet.

NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology): Created in 1901 as the National Bureau of Standards and renamed in 1988, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) works to strengthen U.S. industry's international competitiveness, advance science, and improve public health, safety and the environment. NIST conducts science and engineering research in commercially important fields such as advanced materials, information systems, biotechnology, optoelectronics, computer-integrated manufacturing, and sensor technology.

Node: A Node is a termination point for two or more communication links. The Node serves as the control location for forwarding data among the elements of a network or multiple networks, as well as perform other networking, and in some cases, local processing functions. In systems network architecture, a node is an end point of a link or a junction common to two or more links in a network. Nodes can be host processors, communications controllers, cluster controllers, work group computers or terminals.

Glossaries O

OCR (Optical Character Recognition): The ability of a computer to recognize written characters through some optical-sensing device and pattern recognition software.

ODA/ODIF (Office Document Architecture / Office Document Interchange Format): An explicit document architecture and interchange format standard, which allows exchange of compound documents (i.e., documents composed of various content types, such as character, raster graphics, and geometric (Computer) graphics content.

Open Data-link Interface (ODI): A standard interface, developed by Novell and Apple that performs the same functions as NDIS.

Open System: A system capable of communicating with other open systems by virtue of implementing common international standard protocols.

OSI (Open Systems Interconnection): A standard approach to network design developed by the International Standards Organization that introduces modularity by dividing the complex set of functions into more manageable, self- contained, functional slices. 

Optical Disk: An unalterable optical storage medium that allows large amounts of data to be permanently written to it. An optical disk is read using laser and magnetic technology and has a useful life span of 100 plus years.

On-demand CRM CRM hosted by an ASP or other vendor on the vendor’s premise; in contrast to the traditional practice of buying the software and using it on-premise.

On-demand delivery service Express delivery made quickly after an online order is received.

One-to-one marketing Marketing that treats each customer in a unique way.

Online analytical processing (OLAP) End-user analytical activities, such as DSS modeling using spreadsheets and graphics that are done online.

Online intermediary An online third party that brokers a transaction online between a buyer and a seller; may be virtual or click-and-mortar.

Online publishing The electronic delivery of newspapers, magazines, books, news, music, videos, and other digitizable information over the Internet.

Operational data store A database for use in transaction processing (operational) systems that uses data warehouse concepts to provide clean data.

Opt in Agreement that requires computer users to take specific steps to allow the collection of personal information.

Glossaries P

Packet Segment of data sent from one computer to another on a network.

Packet filters Rules that can accept or reject incoming packets based on source and destination addresses and other identifying information.

Packet-filtering routers Firewalls that filter data and requests moving from the public Internet to a private network based on the network addresses of the computer sending or receiving the request.

Page A page is an HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) document that may contain text, images, and other online elements, such as Java applets and multimedia files. It can be generated statically or dynamically.

Partner relationship management (PRM) Business strategy that focuses on providing comprehensive quality service to business partners.

Patent A document that grants the holder exclusive rights to an invention for a fixed number of years.

Payment card Electronic card that contains information that can be used for payment purposes.

Payment service provider (PSP) A third-party service connecting a merchant’s EC systems to the appropriate acquirers; PSPs must be registered with the various card associations they support.

Peer-to-peer Technology that enables networked peer computers to share data and processing with each other directly; can be used in C2C, B2B, and B2C e-commerce.

Permission advertising (permission marketing) Advertising (marketing) strategy in which customers agrees to accept advertising and marketing materials (known as “opt in”).

Person-to-person lending Lending done between individuals, circumventing the traditional role of banks in this process.

Personal area network (PAN) A wireless telecommunications network for device-to-device connections within a very short range.

Personal digital assistant (PDA) A stand-alone handheld computer principally used for personal information management.

Personalization The ability to tailor a product, service, or Web content to specific user preferences.

Personalized content Web content that matches the needs and expectations of the individual visitor.

Phishing A crimeware technique to steal the identity of a target company to get the identities of its customers.

Plaintext An unencrypted message in human-readable form.

Podcast A media file that is distributed over the Internet using syndication feeds for playback on mobile devices and personal computers. As with the term radio, it can mean both the content and the method of syndication.

Policy of least privilege (POLP) Policy of blocking access to network resources unless access is required to conduct business.

Policy-based resource-management tools Automate and standardize all types of IT management best practices, from initial configuration to ongoing fault management and asset tracking.

Policy-based service-level management tools Coordinate, monitor, and report on the ways in which multiple infrastructure components come together to deliver a business service.

Pop-under ad An ad that appears underneath the current browser window, so when the user closes the active window the ad is still on the screen.

Pop-up ad An ad that appears in a separate window before, after, or during Internet surfing or when reading e-mail.

Privacy The right to be left alone and free of unreasonable personal intrusions.

Private e-marketplaces Markets in which the individual sell-side or buy-side company has complete control over participation in the selling or buying transaction.

Private Key Encryption code that known only to its owner.

Procurement The process made up of a range of activities by which an organization obtains or gains access to the resources (materials, skills, capabilities, facilities) they require to undertake their core business activities.

Procurement management The planning, organizing, and coordinating of all the activities relating to purchasing goods and services needed to accomplish the organization’s mission.

Product brokering Deciding what product to buy.

Product lifecycle management (PLM) Business strategy that enables manufacturers to control and share product related data as part of product design and development efforts.

Proxies Special software programs that run on the gateway server and pass repackaged packets from one network to the other.

Public (asymmetric) key encryption Method of encryption that uses a pair of matched keys—a public key to encrypt a message and a private key to decrypt it, or vice versa.

Public e-marketplace (public exchange) A many-to many e-marketplace. Trading venues open to all interested parties (sellers and buyers); usually run by third parties. Some are also known as trading exchanges.

Public key Encryption code that is publicly available to anyone.

Public key infrastructure (PKI) A scheme for securing e-payments using public key encryption and various technical components.

Purchasing cards (p-cards) Special-purpose payment cards issued to a company’s employees to be used solely for purchasing nonstrategic materials and services up to a preset dollar limit.

Packet Internet Gopher (PING): A TCP/IP utility that sends packets of information to a computer on a network. It can be used to determine if a computer is connected to the Internet.
Parser: The word "parse" comes from "parts of speech" in Latin. It means to part or break down into component parts. A parser is a specialized software program that recognizes SGML and markup in a document. A parser that reads a DTD and checks and reports on markup errors is a validating SGML parser. A parser can be built into an SGML editor to prevent incorrect tagging and to check whether a document contains all the required elements.
PDES/STEP (Product Data Exchange Standard/Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data):
A set of standards under development for communicating a complete product model with sufficient information content that advanced CAD/CAM applications can interpret. PDES is under development as a national (U.S.) standard and STEP is under development as its international counterpart.
PDF (Portable Document Format): A file format created with Adobe Acrobat which ensures that the document looks the same on any computer equipped with a free Acrobat reader. PDF Writer lets you direct print output from a word processing or page layout pgoram to a PDF file instead of a printer. Using it is as easy as printing. Acrobat Exchange allows you to modify PDF documents by adding hypertext links, text, annotations, and security restrictions.
PDL (Page-Description Language): Software that instructs a printer in composing various elements (e.g., text, graphics, images) of a printed page. [Ed. or Standard Page Description Language: ISO 10180, Information Processing Text Composition], 1993. One of the most popular PDLs is PostScript. PostSript documents can be printed at very high resolutions (600 dpi to 1200 dpi or more) depending on the capability of your printer.
PLDB (Parts List Data Base): This tool controls parts inventory during fabrication and operation. PLDB provides inventory status of parts, prepares part list reports, generates purchase orders, and tracks cost/budget of parts. PLDB is linked to LSAR, Imaging, and Bar Coding.
POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface): This standard defines a C programming language source interface to an operating system environment. This standard is used by computing professionals involved in system and application software development and implementation.
POTS: Plain old telephone service. An unenhanced voice quality connection.
PREMO: A proposed international standard that specifies techniques for creating audiovisual interactive applications that recognize and emphasize the interrelationships among user interfaces, multimedia applications, and multimedia information interchange. PREMO includes interfaces for external storage, retrieval, and interchange of multimedia objects. The objective of PREMO is to consider the needs of the computer graphics community in the mid-1990s, including new application areas. 
Processable Data Document:
Technical data in digital source form that is either organized and formatted so that an automated data processing system can further structure or restructure the data in a variety of ways, or is compatible for direct processing by an automated design, engineering, or logistic support system. Processable data can be updated or transformed for other applications such as production of document images. 
Product Data:
All engineering data, in processable form, necessary to define the geometry, the function, and the behavior of an item over its entire life span, including logistic elements for quality, reliability, maintainability, topology, relationship, tolerances, attributes, and features necessary to define the item completely for the purpose of design, analysis, manufacture, test, and inspection.
Product Model:
A data model that contains the functions and physical characteristics of each unit of a product throughout its complete life cycle (from requirements specification to disposal).
Propriety Standard (Defacto Standard):
A standard which has been endorsed by industry or government as the accepted international standard, but not officially approved by an accredited standards body such as ISO.
A set of procedures for establishing and controlling data transmission. Examples include IBM's BSC (Binary Synchronous Communications) and SDLC (Synchronous Data Link Control) protocols.
A set of rules (priorities) and exception handlers for managing the communications on a network. A set of rules or standards that describes ways to operate to achieve compatibility. Alternatively, A mutually determined set of formats and procedures governing the exchange of information between systems.

Glossaries Q

Query Language: A defined set of syntax and commands used to submit queries to a text retrieval system.

Glossaries R

RAMP (Rapid Acquisition of Manufactured Parts): The Navy's RAMP program will enhance logistic support by applying data-driven automated manufacturing, acquisition, and inventory management technologies to produce small lots of selected, hard-to-acquire parts and assemblies at reduced cost and significantly shortened lead times.
Random-Access Memory (RAM): Thought of as temporary memory because when the computer is turned off, all data stored in RAM is lost. To run a computer software application, it must be loaded into RAM. All computer programs (software) have a minimum RAM requirement.
Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM): One of the major objectives of RRM is to create an engineering information environment that is accessible and useful for multiple engineering and manufacturing applications. Accepted robust standards for process and product data storage and exchange, which commercial vendors actively support, are a necessary ingredient of the infrastructure being developed within the RRM program. RRM views the continuing development and access of STEP as crucial. 
Raster Graphics: A method of representing a two-dimensional image by dividing it into a rectangular two- dimensional array of picture elements (pels), achieved by scanning.
RDA (Remote Data Access): A standard being developed to interconnect applications and databases. The standard originally attempted to cover any kind of data access and concerned itself only with effective dialogue management, but the complexity of so broad a scope has focused it more on Structured Query Language (SQL). An SQL specialization draft based on SQL2 is being developed as the first potential implementation of RDA.
RDBMS (Relational Database Management System): A database management system in which the database is organized and accessed according to the relationships between data items. In a relational database, relationships between data items are expressed by means of tables. Interdependencies among these tables are expressed by data values rather than by pointers. This allows a high degree of data independence.
Real-Time: The description for an operating system that responds to an external event within a short and predictable time frame. Unlike a batch or time-sharing operating system, a real-time operating system provides services or control to independent ongoing physical processes. 
Relational Database: A database system in which the database is organized and accessed according to the relationships between data items without the need for any consideration of physical orientation and relationship. Relationships between data items are expressed by means of tables.
Reliability: The duration or probability of failure-free performance under stated conditions; or the probability that an item can perform its intended function for a specified interval under stated conditions. 
Repository: A facility for storing descriptions and behaviors of objects in an enterprise, including requirements, policies, processes, data, software libraries, projects, platforms and personnel, with the potential of supporting both software development and operations management. A single point of definition for all system resources. 
Resolution: The clarity of a monitor screen. Resolution is expressed in pixels. The more pixels there are, the higher the resolution. A document issued by the government to request bids for products or services.
RFQ (Request For Quote): Request For Quote is a request issued by a contracting agency to industry for quotes (proposal) in support of goods or services.
ROM (Read-Only Memory): A type of computer storage that is not available to the user for writing. That is, the user of ROM can access and use data which is stored in ROM, but cannot change the data. Computer CDs use ROM. Once data is placed in ROM it remains and cannot be altered in any way by the user.

Router: Hardware/software solution that directs messages between LANs.

Radio frequency identification (RFID) A technology that uses electronic tags (chips) instead of bar codes to identify items. RFID readers use radio waves to interact with the tags.

Random banners Banner ads that appear at random, not as the result of the user’s action.

Random Syndication (RSS) A family of Web-feed formats used to publish frequently updated digital content.

Reinter mediation The process whereby intermediaries (either new ones or those that had been disintermediated) take on new intermediary roles.

Representational State Transfer (REST) Refers to a collection of architectural principles.

Request for proposal (RFP) Notice sent to potential vendors inviting them to submit a proposal describing their product and how it would meet the company’s needs.

Request for quote (RFQ) The “invitation” to participate in a tendering (bidding) system.

Reusability The likelihood a segment of source code can be used again to add new functionalities with slight or no modification.

Revenue model Description of how the company or an EC project will earn revenue.

reverse auction (bidding or tendering system) Auction in which the buyer places an item for bid (tender) on a request for quote (RFQ) system, potential suppliers bid on the job, with the price reducing sequentially, and the lowest bid wins; primarily a B2B or G2B mechanism.

Reverse logistics The movement of returns from customers to vendors.

ROI calculator Calculator that uses metrics and formulas to compute ROI.

RSA The most common public key encryption algorithm; uses keys ranging in length from 512 bits to 1,024 bits.

Glossaries S

SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language):A markup language uses tags to indicate changes within a document, changes in presentation style, or changes in content type. Generalized means that the markup used to describe a document is based on the content of that document, not on its appearance. Standard means that the language has gone through the international standards process. The SGML standard, approved in 1986, defines a language for document representation which formalizes markup and frees it of system and processing dependencies. It provides a coherent and unambiguous syntax for describing whatever a user chooses to identify within a document. SGML is a metalanguage, a way of talking about (and testing or validating) lower level languages. In the case of SGML it might be a way of talking about elements and tags used in DTDs (document type definitions). To apply SGML, one first defines a document type. The definition would tag all the page elements that would deserve special considerations. Bracketed tags mark the beginning and end of each element. HTML 3.0 is an SGML DTD.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP): A protocol that describes how information is passed between reporting devices and data collection programs. It can be used to gather information about hosts on the Internet.
Source System: The computer hardware, software, and network that will structure technical information for interchange.
SQL (Structured Query Language): SQL is a relational data language that provides a consistent, English keyword-oriented set of facilities for query, data definition, data manipulation and data control. It is a programming interface to a relational database management system (RDBMS).
Standards Testing: Determines whether the national, international, or military standards (and specifications) are viable and implementable.
STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product model data): A standard under development which will be used to describe a product in a neutral format over its complete life-cycle in a hardware-independent way. Source: Department of Trade and Industry, United Kingdom. "CALS: Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistic Support: The Executive Guide. "
System: Specific suite of computer hardware and software. As used in the terms "Source System" and "Destination System," the term does not necessarily correspond one to one with "site" or "base" in that most prime contractor sites and DoD installations have more than one system.

Sales force automation (SFA) Software that automates the tasks performed by salespeople in the field, such as data collection and its transmission.

Scalability How big a system can grow in various dimensions to provide more service; measured by total number of users, number of simultaneous users, or transaction volume.

Scenario planning A strategic planning methodology that generates plausible alternative futures to help decision makers identify actions that can be taken today to ensure success in the future.

Screen-sharing software Software that enables group members, even in different locations, to work on the same document, which is shown on the PC screen of each participant.

Search engine A document-retrieval system designed to help find information stored on a computer system, such as on the Web, inside corporate proprietary files, or in a personal computer.
Search engine marketing (SEM) Marketing methods used to increase the ranking of a Web site in the search results.

Search engine optimization (SEO) The application of strategies intended to position a Web site at the top of Web search engines.

Search engine spam Pages created deliberately to trick the search engine into offering inappropriate, redundant, or poor-quality search results.

Search engine spamming Collective term referring to deceptive online advertising practices.

Secure Socket Layer (SSL) Protocol that utilizes standard certificates for authentication and data encryption to ensure privacy or confidentiality.

Security protocol A communication protocol that encrypts and decrypts a message for online transmission; security protocols generally provide authentication.

Self-hosting When a business acquires the hardware, software, staff, and dedicated telecommunications services necessary to set up and manage its own Web site.

Sell-side e-marketplace A Web-based marketplace in which one company sells to many business buyers from e-catalogs or auctions, frequently over an extranet.

Semantic Web An evolving extension of the Web in which Web content can be expressed not only in natural language, but also in a form that can be understood, interpreted, and used by intelligent computer software agents, permitting them to find, share, and integrate information more easily.

Service-level agreement (SLA) A formal agreement regarding the division of work between a company and a vendor.

Service-oriented architecture (SOA) An application architecture in which executable components, such as Web Services, can be invoked and executed by client programs based on business rules.

Settlement Transferring money from the buyer’s to the merchant’s account.

Shopping portals Gateways to e-storefronts and e-malls; may be comprehensive or niche oriented.

Shopping robots (shopping agents or shopbots) Tools that scout the Web on behalf of consumers who specify search criteria.

Short Message Service (SMS) A service that supports the sending and receiving of short text messages on mobile phones.

Signature file A simple text message an e-mail program automatically adds to outgoing messages.

Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Protocol or message framework for exchanging XML data across the Internet.

Simulation Attempts to gather a great deal of runtime information as well as reproducing a program’s behavior.

Site navigation Aids that help visitors find the information they need quickly and easily.

Smart card An electronic card containing an embedded microchip that enables predefined operations or the addition, deletion, or manipulation of information on the card.

Smart card operating system Special system that handles file management, security, input/output (I/O), and command execution and provides an application programming interface (API) for a smart card.

Smart card reader Activates and reads the contents of the chip on a smart card, usually passing the information on to a host system.

Smartphone A mobile phone with PC-like capabilities.

SMEs Small-to-medium enterprises.

Social bookmarking Web service for sharing Internet bookmarks. The sites are a popular way to store, classify, share, and search links through the practice of folksonomy techniques on the Internet and intranets.

Social commerce A subset of e-commerce in which the users and their personal relationships are at the forefront. The main element is the involvement of the user in the marketing of products being sold.

Social computing An approach aimed at making the human–computer interface more natural.

Social engineering A type of nontechnical attack that uses some ruse to trick users into revealing information or performing an action that compromises a computer or network.

Social marketplace An online community that harnesses the power of social networks for the introduction, buying, and selling of products, services, and resources, including people’s own creations.

Social media Online platforms and tools that people use to share opinions and experiences, including photos, videos, music, insights, and perceptions.

Social network analysis (SNA) The mapping and measuring of relationships and flows between people, groups, organizations, animals, computers or other information or knowledge processing entities. The nodes in the network are the people and groups, whereas the links show relationships or flows between the nodes. SNA provides both a visual and a mathematical analysis of relationships.

Social network A special structure composed of individuals (or organizations) that is based on how its members are connected through various social familiarities. Web sites connect these people with specified interests by providing free services such as photo presentation, e-mail, blogging, and so on.

Software as a service (SaaS) A model of software delivery where the software company provides maintenance, daily technical operation, and support for the software provided to its client. SaaS is a model of software delivery rather than a market segment.

Spam site Page that uses techniques that deliberately subvert a search engine’s algorithms to artificially inflate the page’s rankings.

Spamming Using e-mail to send unwanted ads (sometimes floods of ads).

Splogs Short for spam blog, are sites that are created solely for marketing purposes.

Spot buying The purchase of goods and services as they are needed, usually at prevailing market prices.

Spyware Software that gathers user information over an Internet connection without the user’s knowledge.

Spyware Guide A public reference site for spyware.

Stickiness Characteristic that influences the average length of time a visitor stays in a site.

Store builder service A hosting service that provides disk space and services to help small and micro businesses build a Web site quickly and cheaply.

Stored-value card A card that has monetary value loaded onto it and that usually is rechargeable.

Storefront A single company’s Web site where products or services are sold.

Strategic (systematic) sourcing Purchases involving long-term contracts that usually are based on private negotiations between sellers and buyers.

Strategy A broad-based formula for how a business is going to accomplish its mission, what its goals should be, and what plans and policies will be needed to carry out those goals.

Strategy assessment The continuous evaluation of progress toward the organization’s strategic goals, resulting in corrective action and, if necessary, strategy reformulation.

Strategy formulation The development of strategies to exploit opportunities and manage threats in the business environment in light of corporate strengths and weaknesses.

Strategy implementation The development of detailed, short-term plans for carrying out the projects agreed on in strategy formulation.

Strategy initiation The initial phase of strategic planning in which the organization examines itself and its environment.

Subscriber identification module (SIM) card An extractable storage card used for identification, customer location information, transaction processing, secure communications, etc.

Supplier relationship management (SRM) A comprehensive approach to managing an enterprise’s interactions with the organizations that supply the goods and services it uses.

Supply chain The flow of materials, information, money, and services from raw material suppliers through factories and warehouses to the end customers.

Supply chain management (SCM) A complex process that requires the coordination of many activities so that the shipment of goods and services from supplier right through to customer is done efficiently and effectively for all parties concerned.

SWOT analysis A methodology that surveys external opportunities and threats and relates them to internal strengths and weaknesses.

Symmetric (private) key system An encryption system that uses the same key to encrypt and decrypt the message.

Syndication The sale of the same good (e.g., digital content) to many customers, who then integrate it with other offerings and resell it or give it away free.
Search Engine, Tool, and Utility: A remotely accessible program that lets you do keyword searches for information on the Internet. The search engine is a server program and should not be confused with the browser or other programs that run on your desktop PC. There are a number of search utilities for the WWW (Yahoo, Lycos, etc.). The other Internet services typically have one search tool: ( FTP--Archie, Gopher--Veronica,...)There are several types of search engine; the search may cover titles of documents, URLs, headers, or the full text.

Serial Line IP/Point-to-Point Protocol (SLIP/PPP): Two protocols that allow dial-up access to the Internet through a serial link. Most Internet access packages support both, through you can use only one at a time.

RSS An XML format for syndicating and sharing Web content.

RuBee Bidirectional, on-demand, peer-to-peer radiating transceiver protocol under development by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

Glossaries T

Tape Set: A group of one or more magnetic tapes which collectively represent the collection of related files comprising a specific delivery of a document or documents.
TBITS (Treasury Board Information Technology Standards): Treasury Board Information Technology Standards are the official Government of Canada publications on the standards, guidelines, technical reports and standard operating practices adopted and promulgated under the Treasury Board Information Management policies.
TDP (Technical Data Package): A technical description that is adequate to support acquisition of an item, including engineering and production, the description consisting of all applicable technical data such as engineering drawings, associated lists, product and process specifications and standards, performance requirements, quality assurance provisions, and packaging details.
Technical Data: Recorded information, regardless of form or method of the recording of a scientific or technical nature (including software documentation). The term does not include computer software or data incidental to contract administration, such as financial and/or management information.
Technical Information Systems: The generic term for the enterprise network of existing and augmented automated data processing systems used by government and contractors for management of technical information in support of the design, manufacture, and logistic processes for products such as weapon systems and related major equipment items. 
Telnet: A terminal emulation protocol that allows remote log in from any computer on an internet. Once logged on you can retrieve files from or send files to that remote computer. (2) A portion of the TCP/IP suite of software protocols that handles terminals. Among other functions, it allows a user to log in to a remote computer from the user's local computer.
Text File: A file which uses the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) or similar system to represent the text of a document. Data within a text file are delineated as human readable words, sentences, and paragraphs rather than data elements.
Text-Graphics Integration: The necessary indexing and linkages between a computer readable text file and a separate computer readable graphics file, or graphics subsection of the same text file, such that both portions can be output or updated as a single, apparently continuous, unit.
TIFF (Tag Image File Format): a de facto standard format for image files. The standard used by all FAX machines.
Total Quality Management (TQM) : Interfunctional approach to quality management, developed by Joseph Juran, involving marketing, engineering, manufacturing, purchasing, etc. Defects should be defined through examining customer expectations. The focus is on prevention, detection, and elimination of sources of defects. The Juran total quality management trilogy is quality control, quality planning, and quality projects.

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP): A compilation of network and transport level protocols that allow a PC to speak the same language as other PCs on the Internet or other networks.

Teleconferencing The use of electronic communication that allows two or more people at different locations to have a simultaneous conference.

Telematics The integration of computers and wireless communications to improve information flow using the principles of telemetry.

Telewebs Call centers that combine Web channels with portal-like self-service.

Tendering (bidding) system Model in which a buyer requests would-be sellers to submit bids; the lowest bidder wins.

Text mining The application of data mining to nonstructural or less-structured text files.

Third-party logistics suppliers (3PL) External, rather than in-house, providers of logistics services.

Throughput The number of operations completed in a given period of time; indicates the number of users that a system can handle.

Time-to-exploitation The elapsed time between when a vulnerability is discovered and the time it is exploited.

Total benefits of ownership (TBO) Benefits of ownership that include both tangible and intangible benefits.

Total cost of ownership (TCO) A formula for calculating the cost of owning, operating, and controlling an IT system.

Trackback An acknowledgment or signal from an originating site to a receiving site.

Trademark A symbol used by businesses to identify their goods and services; government registration of the trademark confers exclusive legal right to its use.

Transaction log A record of user activities at a company’s Web site.

Transactional Web site A Web site that sells products and services.

Trojan horse A program that appears to have a useful function but that contains a hidden function that presents a security risk.

Trojan-Phisher-Rebery A new variant of a Trojan program that stole tens of thousands of identities from 125 countries that the victims believed were collected by a legitimate company.

Trust The psychological status of willingness to depend on another person or organization.

Turnkey approach Ready to use without further assembly or testing; supplied in a state that is ready to turn on and operate.

Glossaries U

Unix: A family of operating systems known for its relative hardware independence and portable applications interface.
Usenet (User Network): A public network made up of thousands of newsgroups and organized by topic.

Unique visits A count of the number of visitors entering a site, regardless of how many pages are viewed per visit.

Unit testing Testing application software modules one at a time.

Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI) An XML framework for businesses to publish and find Web Services online.

Up-selling Offering an upgraded version of the product in order to boost sales and profit.

USA PATRIOT Act Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act passed in October 2001, in the aftermath of the September 11 terrorist attacks. Its intent is to give law enforcement agencies broader range in their efforts to protect the public.

Usability (of Web site) The quality of the user’s experience when interacting with the Web site.

Usability testing Testing the quality of the user’s experience when interacting with a Web site.

User profile The requirements, preferences, behaviors, and demographic traits of a particular customer.

Utility (on-demand) computing Unlimited computing power and storage capacity that can be used and reallocated for any application and billed on a pay-per-use basis.

Glossaries V

Value proposition The benefit that a company’s products or services provide to a company and its customers from using EC.

Vendor-managed inventory (VMI) The practice of retailers’ making suppliers responsible for determining when to order and how much to order.

Venture capital (VC) Money invested in a business by an individual, a group of individuals (venture capitalists), or a funding company in exchange for equity in the business.

Vertical auction Auction that takes place between sellers and buyers in one industry or for one commodity.

Vertical marketplaces Markets that deal with one industry or industry segment (e.g., steel, chemicals).

Video teleconference Virtual meeting in which participants in one location can see participants at other locations on a large screen or a desktop computer.

Viral blogging Viral marketing done by bloggers.

Viral marketing Word-of-mouth marketing by which customers promote a product or service by telling others about it.

Viral video Video clip that gains widespread popularity through the process of Internet sharing, typically through e-mail or IM messages, blogs, and other media-sharing Web sites.

Virtual (Internet) community A group of people with similar interests who interact with one another using the Internet.

Virtual (pure-play) e-tailers Firms that sell directly to consumers over the Internet without maintaining a physical sales channel.

Virtual meetings Online meetings whose members are in different locations, even in different countries.

Virtual (pure-play) organizations Organizations that conduct their business activities solely online.

Virtual private network (VPN) A network that creates tunnels of secured data flows, using cryptography and authorization algorithms, to provide secure transport of private communications over the public Internet.

Virtual university An online university from which students take classes from home or other off-site locations, usually via the Internet.

Virtual world A user-defined world in which people can interact, play, and do business. The most publicized virtual world is Second Life.

virtualization A technique for hiding the physical characteristics of computing resources from the way in which other systems, applications, or end users interact with those resources.

Virus A piece of software code that inserts itself into a host, including the operating systems, in order to propagate; it requires that its host program be run to activate it.

Visit A series of requests during one navigation of a Web site; a pause of a certain length of time ends a visit.

Voice commerce (v-commerce) An umbrella term for the use of speech recognition to support voice-activated services, including Internet browsing and e-mail retrieval.

Voice portal A Web site with an audio interface that can be accessed through a telephone call.

Vortals B2B portals that focus on a single industry or industry segment; “vertical portals.”

VAN (Value-Added Network) : A system where a network leases communication lines from a communications common carrier, enhances them by adding improvements such as error detection and/or faster response time, and then allows others to use this service on those lines for a fee. 
Vector Graphics: The presentation of images stored as line segments or other mathematical representations. 
Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Netwide Index to Computerized Archives (Veronica):
A search tool (like archie) that searches text that appears in Gopher menus.

Voice over Internet Protocol
(VoIP, IPA: /v??p/) is a general term for a family of transmission technologies for delivery of voice communications over IP networks such as the Internet or other packet-switched networks. Other terms frequently encountered and synonymous with VoIP are IP telephony, Internet telephony, voice over broadband (VoBB), broadband telephony, and broadband phone.
VoIP systems usually interface with the traditional public switched telephone network (PSTN) to allow for transparent phone communications worldwide [1].

VoIP systems employ session control protocols to control the set-up and tear-down of calls as well as audio codecs which encode speech allowing transmission over an IP network as digital audio via an audio stream. Codec use is varied between different implementations of VoIP (and often a range of codecs are used); some implementations rely on narrowband and compressed speech, while others support high fidelity stereo codecs.

Glossaries W

WAN (Wide-Area Network): A data transmission facility that connects geographically dispersed sites using long-haul networking facilities.
Web Browser: (see client software, browser)A World Wide Web client. PC Software such as Netscape Navigator or NSCA Mosaic that serves as an information retrieval tool. The browser locates the web site specified in a URL, transfers the specified file, and interprets the HTML code.
WHOIS: A TCP/IP utility that lets you query compatible servers for detailed information about other Internet users.
Wide Area Information Server (WAIS): Software that is used to index large text files in servers. On the client side, it finds and retrieves documents in databases, based on user-defined keywords. WAIS indexes can be searched for everything from government documents and treaties to documents about obscure religious sects.
Workflow Management: A software application that controls the order and monitors the execution of a series of processes (work steps) in which people act upon work items (documents, forms, folders and images). 
Workflow: The automation of work among users where the system is intelligent enough to act based on definition of work types, users, tasks and the recognition of dynamic processing conditions. 
World Wide Web (WWW): A network of servers that uses hypertext links to find and access files. Many Web sites also support video and sound.

Warehouse management system (WMS) A software system that helps in managing warehouses.

Web 2.0 The popular term for advanced Internet technology and applications, including blogs, wikis, RSS, and social bookmarking. One of the most significant differences between Web 2.0 and the traditional World Wide Web is greater collaboration among users, content providers, and enterprises.

Web bugs Tiny graphics files embedded in e-mail messages and in Web sites that transmit information about users and their movements to a Web server.

Web hosting service A dedicated Web site hosting company that offers a wide range of hosting services and functionality to businesses of all sizes.

Web mining The application of data mining techniques to discover meaningful patterns, profiles, and trends from both the content and usage of Web sites.

Web self-service Activities conducted by users on the Web to find answers to their questions (e.g., tracking) or for product configuration.

Web Service A software system identified by a URI (uniform resource indicator), whose public interfaces and bindings are defined and described using XML.

Web Services Description Language (WSDL) An XML document that defines the programmatic interface— operations, methods, and parameters—for Web Services.

Web Services An architecture enabling assembly of distributed applications from software services and tying them together.

Web syndication A form of syndication in which a section of a Web site is made available for other sites to use.

Web-oriented architecture (WOA) A set of Web protocols (e.g., HTTP and plain XML) as the most dynamic, scalable, and interoperable Web Service approach.

Webcasting A free Internet news service that broadcasts personalized news and information, including seminars, in categories selected by the user.

Webinars Seminars on the Web (Web-based seminars).

Web logging (blogging) Technology for personal publishing on the Internet.

Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) The common name used to describe the IEEE 802.11 standard used on most WLANs.

Wiki log (wikiblog or wiki) A blog that allows everyone to participate as a peer; anyone can add, delete, or change content.

WiMax A wireless standard (IEEE 802.16) for making broadband network connections over a medium-size area such as a city.

Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) A scripting language used to create content in the WAP environment; based on SML, minus unnecessary content to increase speed.

Wireless local area network (WLAN) A telecommunications network that enables users to make short-range wireless connections to the Internet or another network.

Wireless Markup Language (WML) A scripting language used to create content in the WAP environment; based on XML, minus unnecessary content to increase speed.

Wireless mobile computing (mobile computing) Computing that connects a mobile device to a network or another computing device, anytime, anywhere.

Wireless wide area network (WWAN) A telecommunications network that offers wireless coverage over a large geographical area, typically over a cellular phone network.

Workflow The movement of information as it flows through the sequence of steps that make up an organization’s work procedures.

Workflow management The automation of workflows, so that documents, information, and tasks are passed from one participant to the next in the steps of an organization’s business process.

Workflow systems Business process automation tools that place system controls in the hands of user departments to automate information processing tasks.

Worm A software program that runs independently, consuming the resources of its host in order to maintain itself, that is capable of propagating a complete working version of itself onto another machine.

Glossaries X

X 12: ANSI X12 Ver. 3050 transaction sets can be described in six pages of 3 digit codes. The X12 format standard is commonly used in EDI (automated computer-to-computer data exchange). Purchasing transaction sets include 840s RFQs, 850s Purchase Orders, and 855s PO Acknowledgements. Financial transaction sets include 810s Invoices.

X.25: A data communication protocol that ensures data integrity while data is being transmitted to, from and within the network. This standard defines the interconnection of packet-switching networks and their associated computers or terminals. These types of networks make efficient use of the telecommunications networks by taking the data generated by a computer or a remote terminal and chopping it up into small identified packets and then looking for the most efficient way of sending this information to its destination.
X.400: Defines the special rules for transmission of a message that may include text, pictures, and graphics, and allows information to be transmitted between computers, without specific manufacturer restrictions. 
X.500: The establishment of any global interconnected network requires a directory. The standard for establishing such a directory is X.500, which enables users to browse through user listings as though they were looking through a telephone book.

The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose specification for creating custom markup languages.[1] It is classified as an extensible language, because it allows the user to define the mark-up elements. XML's purpose is to aid information systems in sharing structured data, especially via the Internet, [2] to encode documents, and to serialize data; in the last context, it compares with text-based serialization languages such as JSON and YAML. [3]XML's set of tools help developers in creating web pages but its usefulness goes well beyond that. XML, in combination with other standards, makes it possible to define the content of a document separately from its formatting, making it easy to reuse that content in other applications or for other presentation environments. Most importantly, XML provides a basic syntax that can be used to share information between different kinds of computers, different applications, and different organizations without needing to pass through many layers of conversion.[4]XML began as a simplified subset of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), meant to be readable by people via semantic constraints; application languages can be implemented in XML. These include XHTML,[5] RSS, MathML, GraphML, Scalable Vector Graphics, MusicXML, and others. Moreover, XML is sometimes used as the specification language for such application languages. XML is recommended by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). It is a fee-free open standard. The recommendation specifies lexical grammar and parsing requirements.

Glossaries Z

Zero-day incidents Attacks through previously unknown weaknesses in their computer networks.
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